Now I spend more time at home than I ever did I am looking into more things to do I never had the time for. One of them I am interested in for a long time was trying to make wine at home.
I am not sure if I ever will but I started to do some research for it and here are the things I found out so far. Wine can also be part of a healthy diet.
First, we must have excellent quality and chosen grapes according to the type of wine we want to make (red or white wine), extracting the greatest amount of juice or must.
In this case, we take the example to make red wine. There are different varieties among the red grapes, and it is important to elaborate on which one we choose.
The grapes must be healthy, whole, and free of any bacteria; the fruit must be kept under a temperature that does not exceed 19 or 20 degrees.
To make a liter of wine, we will need approximately 2 kilos of grapes.
Crushing the grapes
Depending on our means, it may be one way or another. It can be done with a small press, with a grinder, or by treading, which is the most traditional way in which the must is obtained quickly: the grapes are placed inside the fabric, and they are squeezed into the fabric by applying a significant force so that it allows the strain and filter of the grape juice.
The fresh must ferment quickly and has to be very controlled.
In fermentation, we will have the must plus all the crush solids since they are necessary agents. In red wines, the must be fermented must be composed of grape juice, skins, seeds, etc., to obtain good color and good texture.
Fermentation must take place at a suitable temperature, to make red wines it should never exceed 30 ° C. The fermentation time also varies with the volume to ferment. For reference, in approximately two days, 100 liters of wine is fermented.
It is very important to keep bacteria clean during fermentation; yeast and nutrients are used for this process.
Yeasts are microorganisms responsible for transforming fructose into ethyl alcohol. Grapes naturally have yeast, but it is better to have yeast to help control fermentation.
To avoid the proliferation of other undesirable organisms, the addition of sulfurous salts and potassium sulfite is used. The addition of this salt in a proportion of 100 mg/liter is enough to prevent future alterations. A small amount is added to a little dissolved must and added back to the vessel or barrel.
There are methods to know when the must-have fermented, normally a small bubbling is created; the liquid begins to take up more volume and naturally releases carbon dioxide.
Clarification and filtering
Once the fermentation is finished, the liquid must be separated from the solids, and the wine must be cleaned. To carry out the filtering and cleaning, clarifiers are used that are responsible for dragging the excess remains to the bottom of the container. The clarifier can be left to act for two or three days.
The wine must be filtered three times using filters from coarser to finer; once this process is finished, it can be transferred to another container.
The transfer to the container must be carried out, taking care not to remove the grounds, to avoid being referred to and transmitting unpleasant odors to the wine. Racking can be done with plastic tubes or in a rudimentary way with saucepans, for example.
It is worth mentioning that obtaining the necessary elements, both in terms of materials (filters, etc.) and products (yeasts, clarifiers, etc.), can be found in specialized stores.
In the new container, it is necessary to let the wine rest so that it finishes macerating with the container closed; it should be left in a cold place for three days, just as during the fermentation process.
After this period, the wine is ready for bottling; another filtering can be done before transferring it to the bottles. This can be done easily with filters and funnels.